70-659 Windows Server 2008 R2 Server Virtualization Study Notes

 

Server 2008 R2 Editions

Version

Failover Clustering and Live Migration

Host Licenses

Notes

Enterprise

Y

Includes 4 licenses to run windows server enterprise or lower as a VM on the host

 

Datacenter

Y

Unlimited windows server enterprise licenses for VMs on the host

 

HyperV

Y

None

No GUI

Free!

 

Hyper V installation

Pre-requisites:

  • Min 1.4GHz x64 processor
  • Intel VT or AMD-V technology enabled
  • Hardware Data Executino Prevention (DEP) enabled (Intel XD bit or AMD NX bit)
  • 1GB RAM
  • 8GB Disk Space

You can install Hyper-V via the following commands

  • Start /w ocsetup Microsoft-Hyper-V (full windows installation – not core)
  • Add-WindowsFeature Hyper-V (powershell)
  • Use “server manager” and select the HyperV role
  • Also adding a server to SCVMM will automatically install HyperV

Features

  • Dynamic Memory – included with 2008R2 SP1. Allows the memory allocated to a VM to be dynamically adjusted allowing for great VM density.
  • Pass-thru – HyperV allows you to directly access storage directly mapped to the HyperV host. To ensure the guest has exclusive access to the disk it should be placed offline.

System Center 2012 Virtual Machine Manager (SCVMM)

Installation Pre-requisites:

Item

Pre-requisite

Database

  • SQL Server 2008 R2 Datacenter (64-bit) – Service Pack 1 or earlier
  • SQL Server 2008 R2 Enterprise (64-bit) – Service Pack 1 or earlier
  • SQL Server 2008 R2 Standard (64-bit) – Service Pack 1 or earlier
  • SQL Server 2008 Enterprise (64-bit) – Service Pack 2
  • SQL Server 2008 Standard (64-bit) – Service Pack 2
  • No longer supports SQL express!

Self Service Portal

IIS Role including ASP.net, .net extensibility, default document, directory browsing, HTTP errors, II6 metabase compatibility, IIS 6 WMI compatibility, ISAPI extensions, ISAPI filters, request filtering, static content.

WAIK

Windows 7

 

When deploying or migrating VMs SCVMM it is possible to specify placement goals

  • Maximization – Choose this option if you want to fully utilize one host before assigning virtual machines to additional hosts
  • Load Balancing – Distribute the performance load of your virtual machines evenly across your hosts.

There are 3 roles that can be assigned in SCVMM

  1. Administrator – Full Access
  2. Delegate Administrator – Full access to only Host and Libraries defined in the scope
  3. Self Service User – Can administer there own VMs via the self service portal.

P2V Conversions

To perform a P2V conversion, your source computer:

  • Must have at least 512 MB of RAM.
  • Cannot have any volumes larger than 2040 GB.
  • Must have an Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) BIOS – Vista WinPE will not install on a non-ACPI BIOS.
  • Must be accessible by VMM and by the host computer.

Offline P2V conversions:-

  • Are required for Windows 2000 computers and FAT volumes
  • Are recommended for domain controllers and ensuring data consistency

V2V

iSCSI Configuration on Server Core

  • When running server core use iSCSICPL.EXE to launch the iSCSI GUI
  • Run iSCSICLI.exe to configure via the command line

Misc

  • HyperV does not support NAS devices

Networking

  • Internal – Allows VMs on the host to communicate with each other. Not bound to a physical NIC. Can access the host
  • Private – allows VMs on 1 host to communicate with each other but not outside the host. Not bound to a physical NIC. Cannot access the host
  • External – bound to an physical NIC. Able to access VMs on the host and external network.

VMs

Hardware

  • Supports up to 4 SCSI controllers
  • The startup disk must be connected to an IDE controller
  • You have to shut down the VM to add a disk to an IDE controller. You can add disks to SCSI controllers without shutting down.
  • You need to use a “legacy network adaptor” if installing the OS over the network

Files

  • .XML – the virtual machine configuration details. There is one of these for each virtual machine and each snapshot of a virtual machine. They are always named with the GUID used to internally identify the virtual machine or snapshot in question.
  • .BIN – contains the memory of a virtual machine or snapshot that is in a saved state.
  • .VSV – contains the saved state from the devices associated with the virtual machine.
  • .VHD – the virtual hard disk files for the virtual machine
  • .AVHD – the differencing disk files used for virtual machine snapshots

Snapshots

  • If you delete a snapshot when the VM is running the .avhd file is not deleted until the vm is shutdown

 

Important Powershell Commands

  • Run the command Add-PSSnapin Microsoft.SystemCenter.VirtualMachineManager to load the VMM cmdlets.
  • Disable firewall netsh firewall set opmode disable
  • Suspend-clusterresource – put a (clustered) disk into maintenance mode without triggering failover

iSCSI

  • iscsicli QAddTarget <IQN- of-target> – Add the target
  • iscsicli QloginTarget <IQN- of-target> – login to target
  • iscsicli PersistentLoginTarget <IQN- of-target> – make persistent

Performance and Resource Optimization (PRO)

  • Requires SCVMM and SCOM (System Center Operations Manager)
  • PRO can recommend or initiate remedial actions via PROtips
  • For example PRO can be used to load balance VMs across Hosts

VMM Library

  • Used to store objects not associated with an individual host such as; virtual hard disks, virtual floppy disks, ISO images, templates, operative system profiles, hardware profiles etc.

Live Migration

  • Requires failover clustering to be setup on the servers running HyperV
  • Each HyperV host must have the same network configuration (i.e. the virtual networks must have the same name) or you may lose VM connectivity after a live migration.
  • You can only run 1 live migration per host (concurrently)

Remote Desktop

  • Connection Authorization Policy – Used to provide access for remote clients to internal resources

Failover Clusters

  • You can identify the network used for cluster shared volumes (CSV) and prioritise the traffic accordingy. To edit the priority use the powershell command Get-ClusterNetwork and edit the metric value.

Managing VMware

  • You must add a virtual center server before you can manage any VMWare hosts

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